Friday, May 3, 2013

Rhoma Irama and the Dangdut Style

In the late 1960s, bands which had for a few years satisfied themselves and
their limited, urban elite audiences with more or less literal translations of hits by
the Everly Brothers, Elvis Presley, the Beatles, and the like--one thinks of groups
like Koes Plus, Mercy's, Panbers, and Bimbo--began to make cautious innovations.
Basically, they incorporated select elements of the Melayu-Deli and kroncong traditions
into their work. The effort produced a fairly slick, contemporary sound, and
a number of singers, such as Hetty Koes Endang, Broery Pesolima, Titi Qadarsih,
and Emilia Contessa, showed a genuine flair for it. Although pleasant to the ear,
this synthesis lacked a certain spark of originality its melodies and lyrics exuded
an upper- and upper-middle-class aura. Wags soon dubbed the music "Melayu
Mentengan," after the swank residential district in Jakarta,23 and the lukewarm
public response to a "modernized" arrangement by the DTLloyds group of the title
song from the old movie Serodja seems to have made the point that one could not
capture new audiences simply by recycling old hits, Western or indigenous.
As it happened, at least one young man had come to precisely this conclusion
as early as 1969, when he sat in the then less-than-fashionable Jakarta satellite of
Tebet, attempting to fashion a "new music" with which to replace the Western rock
he had just renounced. His odd name was Oma Irama, invented by his parents to
commemorate the special circumstances surrounding his birth: his mother had gone
into labor upon returning home from an outdoor concert and thus the child was
called irama or "rhythm."21* Originally there was little to suggest that this fellow,
who grew to be a mediocre student with a penchant for rock music and, it is said,
rather rakish behavior, would turn out at all differently from so many other urban
middle-class youths.
But in less than a decade Oma, who subsequently styled himself Rhoma by adding
the initial letters of the titles raden and hα/i to his childhood nickname, was
transformed--or perhaps transformed himself --into one of the best-paid and most
widely recognized contemporary Indonesians, and a musician who changed the face
of Indonesian music. While his accomplishments stand on their own, it is also true
that his biography has fascinated Indonesian society at many levels for some time.
The reason for this interest appears to be that Rhoma Iramaτs life exemplifies a
partly traditional and partly very contemporary kind of rags-to-riches, triumph-oft
he-good-individual story that young Indonesians find very appealing. And it is
perhaps true as well that the details of this personal tale, especially in romanticized
screen versions, mirror the popular perceptions, frustrations, and desires of the
times with remarkable coherence.
Rhoma was born on December 11, 1947 in Tasikmalaya, West Java. His father,
a captain in the army, moved the family to Jakarta in the early 1950s and hoped the
boy would take advantage of the educational facilities in the capital city to become a
doctor. Rhomaτs mother, a native of Bandung, was perhaps a little less insistent
about the precise career choice, but there can be little doubt that she too had
middle-class aspirations for her son. When her husband died in 1957, she continued to follow their earlier plans for Rhomaτs education; despite help from a brother in
Bandung, it was no easy task, financially or otherwise.
A restless boy, Rhoma seemed moved by music and little else. He is said to
have drummed on his school bench with such verve that his classmates stopped to
listen. He taught himself to play the guitar and practiced singing in his naturally
clear, full-toned voice. In his early teens he played, without his mother's or uncle's
knowledge, in a number of bands formed by school chums in Tebet. In 1963
he established his own band, Gayhand, attempting to make a paying business out of
a repertoire of Beatles music and tunes associated with Paul Anka, Tom Jones, and
Andy Williams. It was neither a creative nor a commercial success, at least not on
the scale Rhoma had hoped for. But educational plans, his mother had finally to
admit, had not worked out very well either. Rhoma moved desultorily through a
number of high schools in Jakarta and elsewhere, and then attended Universitas
17 Agustus before finally giving up. He felt himself to be a musician and began to
discover within himself a gritty determination to make the world take notice.
It is difficult to say exactly how the change took place, but rather abruptly
Rhoma turned to Melayu music as an alternative to Western pop and rock. More
likely than not, the young man's still-developing musical and business intuitions
were equally aroused. In 1968 he sang for a while with the Orkes Melayu Purnama.
He was impressed with both the spirit and the marketability of the band's style,
and there he met the singer Elvy Sukaesih (b. 1951), who had already developed a
fluid approach to Melayu music that was new and exciting. By his own account,
this experience, together with the excitement of reaching an audience larger and
different in social composition from those he was used to, propelled Rhoma into
planning a new musical style with certain specifications: it must be broadly popular,
cutting across class lines and appealing to the sensibilities of Indonesians of
all sorts; it must be unmistakably modern; and it must carry a message, however
simple, in a language that was easily grasped by young people everywhere. Finally,
this new music must neither reveal an obvious kinship with Western styles--the
goal was an unmistakably "Indonesian" or at least an "Eastern" sound--nor merely
imitate the existing Melayu-Deli style with its Arab and Indian flourishes.25
This was a tall order by any reckoning, and a music to fill it did not appear
overnight. But that such a music was envisioned--and envisioned in this particular
fashion--re veals much about Oma Irama that might otherwise be obscure. One is
struck, for example, with the deliberate, intellectualizing approach he took toward
his music at this early stage. There is no reason to disbelieve his own account of
the manner in which he sat down to ponder how a new style might be created. While
the eventual difference between success and failure in this endeavor undoubtedly
owes as much to intuitive creative talent as to deliberation, it is the studied character
of Oma's search that first invites attention. In addition, his actions bear the
unmistakable stamp of a shrewd pragmatism and natural business acumen. Today
Oma frequently disavows having had any special concern for the potential financial
rewards offered by public entertaining, but the reality is surely rather different.
He seems instinctively to have identified popular success at least partly with commercial
success, and has more recently shown that he has an unerring business
sense. He sees nothing contradictory, and certainly nothing morally objectionable,
in aspiring to be entrepreneur and artist, and has applied his keen feel for the
public pulse to both enterprises.some of his ideas with ensembles he did not control (all of them orkes Melayu of
the usual sort), Oma formed Soneta in 1971. This group was still basically an orkes
Melayu, and was frequently advertised as such during its early years, but the intent
seems always to have been to break out of the orkes Melayu pattern. Later
the name Soneta Group, with its contemporary ring and affinity with the titles of
diversified New Order enterprises (Sinar Group, Kartini Group), was insisted upon.
Soneta gave Oma both creative elbowroom and a certain degree of financial independence
with which to experiment. He had mastered the Melayu sound and, with Elvy
Sukaesih as his principal singing partner, rode the vogue as he began to infuse it
with new ideas. There was no musical revolution, but a gradual and not always
certain development produced by an active musical imagination and the competition
and financial rewards of the musical marketplace. Melayu tunes were already growing
in popularity again--perhaps they seemed fresh and catchy to a new generation.
Oma was not responsible for this trend, but he did realize that he could seize the
essence of the music itself and the opportunity offered by its new recognition to
create something fresh and exciting.
To speak of a well-defined Soneta Group style between 1971 and about 1974
would be to ascribe to the compositions it played a coherence that they did not, if
available recordings are faithful, in reality possess. At most it might be said that
Oma and Elvy managed to vary the instrumentation and phrasing of their numbers
to produce more variety in tone and texture than displayed by the ordinary orkes
Melayu. The typical underbeat of this music was also treated in such a way as to
give it more verve and expressiveness than its Indian model. Omaτs output as a
composer, however, was limited, and as a lyricist his work showed little depth or
direction. 2G
By 1975, however, the outlines of a tighter synthesis and a patently individual
personality could be seen in Oma's music. It was above all an energetic style that
pumped the Melayu song full of a liquid, flowing rhythm and highlighted its characteristic
waves of melody. In part the effect was achieved with subtle changes in
orchestration, but it came more noticeable with the incorporation of electrical instruments--
guitar, organ, even mandolin--and increasingly powerful acoustical
equipment. This kind of music could be felt in an almost visceral way. If Melayu
music was customarily foot-tapping stuff, then this dangdut (as it was now being
called) practically shook young listeners, compelling them to toss off their footgear
and rock (bergoyang) to the music. Indeed, dancing in this particular manner, a
cross between the traditional kampung-style joget and vaguely rock-and-roll motions,
became a hallmark of Soneta performances. (source: RHOMA IRAMA AND THE DANGDUT STYLE:

Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Indonesiaan Greatest Entertainer

''Most likely, in Indonesia, Rhoma Irama greatest entertainer.Since the giant meetings during Guided Democracy, the event stage the most mass is flooded with Rhoma stage,''said William H. Frederick, doctorate in sociology at Ohio, USA, which ever conducted research on Rhoma Irama. Frederick, it seems, is not excessive. Some mass media Indonesia already reported, the audience performances in many areas there Rhoma who fell unconscious or hurt, because it is too crowded – it which actually really regret Rhoma own. ''To get entertainment, why should not fall victim so?''he said.

Based on sales data tapes, and the number of viewers of films starred in, fan Rhoma not less than 15 million - 10% Indonesia's population. It records up to mid 1984. No'' kind of cutting-edge art that has such a broad scope,''writes TEMPO magazine, June 30, 1984. Meanwhile, Rhoma himself said, ''I am afraid of publicity. Apparently, I was dragged away.''

People call music dangdut Rhoma'''', a label which does not Rhoma preferred. The term''was given by those who do not like,'' he said. He insisted on calling his music as rhythm Malay. In fact, his music is not true Malay: already exists''revolution''in therein, namely the entry of rock elements. And according to Achmad Albar, famous rock singer,''Rhoma pioneers. Smart wed orchestra Malay with a rock.''

Rhoma also successful in the world of film, at least commercially. Data Page Perfin mention, almost all movies Rhoma always sold out. Even before a film has been processed, people have bought it. Satria
Bergitar, for example. The film, made at a cost of Rp 750 million, when it has not been completed already obtained a  Rp 400 juta. But  brokers,   Rhoma''never eat from the money the film. He is living off the tape,'' Benny said Muharram, Rhoma brother, who became producer PT Rhoma Film.

The result was donated to the film, among others, mosques, orphanages, youth activities, and improvement of the village. In 1983, Rhoma pay Zakat Rp  6 million.

To achieve such an accomplishment and wealth, Rhoma had passed periods of very bitter. Among others, become homeless and street singers street in Solo - ongoing since she separated high school (1964) until before the events of the G-30-S PKI. In that city he was accompanied by Benny, her sister, and Haris, his friend. The three of them at first wanted to Jombang, East Java, in order to comply with the Rhoma want

deepen the Islamic religious instruction in Pesantren Tebuireng. However, due to run out of charge, they then stranded in Solo. And singing. ''When receiving money from ngamen, we moved after Oma said, this is our profession right now,''said Haris later day, when already a Film Rhoma staff. Oma is a call
Rhoma familiar from childhood until just before a pilgrimage, 1975. During Solo that, three of them riding in a hut on the edge of the Solo owned by a tattooed man named Gito.

Rhoma father is Raden Anggawirya Burda, a former military officer. Rhoma born when his father came home to watch the new theatrical Sunda group played his passion, the New Rhythm. So, the baby was given the name Rhythm - and later became Oma Irama Rhoma Irama. Rhoma Talent myself have seen since I was in elementary school in Tasikmalaya. Never one class suddenly empty, because the students go to another class. Watch Oma Irama hummed songs with alluring style, head-shaking
shake and his eyes closed-closed. Rhoma married twice. First with Veronica, gave birth to three children

- Then divorced, when then Rhoma married Rachim Ricca and give him a son ‘Ridho Rhoma’ who follow him to be artis.

Monday, May 16, 2011

Rhoma Irama short biography

Raden Oma Irama is popularly known as Rhoma Irama (born in Tasikmalaya, December 11, 1946, age 62 years) is an Indonesian dangdut musicians nicknamed "King of Dangdut". In the seventies, Rhoma has become famous singers and musicians after the ups and downs in founding the band music, ranging from the band Gayhand 1963. Shortly thereafter, he moved into Orchestra Chandra negligent, to eventually form his own band called sonnet that since October 13, 1973 start flying. Together they lead the group sonnet, Rhoma recorded ever get 11 Golden Record from cassette-tape.

Based on sales data tapes, and the number of spectators who starred in the films, fans Rhoma not less than 15 million, or 10 percent of Indonesia's population. It records up to mid 1984. "There is no kind of cutting-edge art that has such a broad scope, " wrote TEMPO magazine, June 30, 1984. Meanwhile, Rhoma himself said, "I am afraid of publicity. Apparently, I was dragged away."
Rhoma Irama counted as one of the most successful entertainers in the mass gathering. Rhoma Irama not just appear in the country but he has also appeared in Kuala Lumpur, Singapore and Brunei with nearly the same number of viewers when she appeared in Indonesia. Rhoma Irama often in concert, the audience fell unconscious due to crowding. People call music is music dangdut Rhoma, while he himself would prefer if the music called rhythm Malay.
On October 13, 1973, Rhoma proclaimed the motto "Voice of Moslem", which aims to become agents reformer Malay music that combines elements of rock music in the Malay music and improvisation of arrangements, poems, lyrics, costumes, and performances on stage. According to Achmad Albar, Indonesian rock singer, "Rhoma pioneers. Pintar wed Malay orchestra with a rock. " But if we observe was not the only rock that combined by Rhoma Irama but pop music, India, and the orchestra as well. which is why every song Rhoma memiiki different tastes.
For the singers dangdut Rhoma songs representing all shades of religious atmosphere there, teenage love, love to parents, to the nation, social criticism, and others. "It is impossible to hold the stage without displaying the song Bang dangdut Rhoma, because all love the song Rhoma," was the response some dangdut singer in a TV show.
Rhoma also successful in the world of film, at least commercially. Data PT Perfin mention, almost all movies Rhoma always sold out. Even before a film has been processed, people have bought it. Bergitar Satria, for example. The film, made at a cost of Rp 750 million, when it has not been completed already obtained a broker $ 400 million. But, "Rhoma never eat from the money the film. He lived off the money cassettes," said Benny Muharram, Rhoma brother, who became producer PT Rhoma Film. The result was donated to the film, among others, mosques, orphanages, youth activities, and village improvement.
He is also involved in the political world. In the early days of New Order, he could become an important mascot PPP, after continued despised by the New Order government for refusing to join Golkar. Rhoma Had not been politically active for some time, before finally elected as a member of Parliament representing the delegation representing the Group of artists and artist in 1993. In the 2004 elections Rhoma Irama also appeared on stage MCC campaign.
Rhoma Irama had time to attend the University of August 17 in Jakarta, but not complete. "It turned out more fun learning and challenging," she said one day. He himself said that he had a lot of research into referral is approximately 7 thesis of his music have been produced. In addition, foreign researchers are also often make it as an object of research, such as William H. Frederick, doctorate in sociology at Ohio, USA which examined the strength of the popularity and influence in society Rhoma Irama.
In February 2005, he obtained a doctorate honoris causa from the American University of Hawaii in the field of dangdut, a proper appreciation considering the influence on music and culture of Indonesia, in addition to seeing his dedication to the art world that is almost in tekuni nearly 50 years of his life.
As a musician, songwriter, and movie stars, Rhoma during his career, as disclosed, has created a tremendous lot of songs which amounted to 685 songs and played in over 23 films. On December 11, 2007, Rhoma celebrate the 61st birthday which is also the birthday celebration the first time since the infant, as well as a sign of the launch of his website,
Rhoma Irama is known as a Muslim preacher and chairman Muslim Forum (FUI), a religious organization that does not favor any party. His success in the music world and the art world makes the role had founded the company Rhoma Irama Rhoma Film Productions film that succeeded in producing movies, among Struggle and Prayer (1980) and Love Twins (1984).
Now, who was called Bang Rhoma this Hajj, a lot of their time in both through music and preaching sermons on television until the corners of the archipelago. With the spirit and signature style, which makes the group Rhoma sonnet as Sound of Moslem religion continues to actively expand syiar.
Most of the songs having Islamic Rhoma Irama and the spirit of humanism, this is based from his own background Rhoma very keen to learn religion.

Controversy Regarding RhomaIn 2003, Rhoma back into the media spotlight for criticizing Inul Daratista, dangdut singer who is on the rise for relying on his dance styles that are considered obscene. Rhoma with in the name of the organization PAMMI (United Artists Music Indonesian Malay), against the circulation of the album which was released Goyang Inul Blackboard at the end of May 2003. historical record since the arrival inul dangdut dara Tista prestige fall, because the audience was busy seeing action rocking her hips and chest of the singer and ultimately boring fast. the power of music dangdut Rhoma which has been built on rhyme and rhythm to be left behind
in accordance with the spirit that flows in self-Ulema Rhoma Irama p there in January 2006, back Rhoma before lawmakers issued a statement opposing the action stage, Inul, in a discussion of the bill Antipornografi hearing between the House and the artist.Family RhomaRhoma married Veronica in 1972, a Christian woman who became Muslim after she married, who then gave him three children, Debby (31), Fikri (27), and Romy (26). Rhoma finally divorced her in May 1985.Before the divorce, about a year earlier, Rhoma married Rachim Ricca, also a Christian woman who became Muslim after she married. Ricca also as co-star in several films such as Melody of Love, Storm in early Happy, Camellia, Love Triangle, Devotion, Sacrifice, and Satria Bergitar. Until now, Ricca still accompany Rhoma as a wife.On August 2, 2005, announced that it has married the artist Rhoma patron Lelga Angel, a Christian who maketh Muslim women, in siri on March 6, 2003, but that day he divorced her.She got married again (1991) and then the husband is an officer dies, her own death in 2005 by experiencing a variety of illnesses, the children admitted to the press during her illness Rhoma Irama who bear all the costs of care down to Singapore since she was no longer a prolific artist and has been a widow since her husband had died. The family noted that Rhoma still plays a role in the family.

Ke Bina Ria (1974), Joget (1975), Penasaran (1976), Hak Asasi (1977), Gitar Tua Oma Irama (1977), Berkelana (1978), Rupiah (1978), Begadang (1978).
1. Oma Irama Penasaran (1976),  
2. Gitar Tua Oma Irama (1977),  
3. Darah Muda (1977),  
4. Rhoma Irama Berkelana I (1978),  
5. Rhoma Irama Berkelana II (1978),  
6. Begadang (1978),  
7. Raja Dangdut (1978),  
8. Cinta Segitiga (1979),  
9. Camelia (1979), 
10. Perjuangan dan Doa (1980), 
11. Melody Cinta Rhoma Irama (1980),  
12. Badai Diawal Bahagia (1981),  
13. Satria Bergitar (1984),  
14. Cinta Kembar (1984),  
15. Pengabdian (1985),  
16. Kemilau Cinta di Langit Jingga (1985),  
17. Menggapai Matahari I (1986),  
18. Menggapai Matahari II (1986),  
19. Nada-Nada Rindu (1987),  
20. Bunga Desa (1988),  
21. Jaka Swara (1990), 
22. Nada dan Dakwah (1991),  
23. Tabir Biru (1994).

Thursday, May 17, 2007

The King of the dangdut

In the late 1960s a new popular music called dangdut emerged from the slums and suburbs of Jakarta in Indonesia. The music was performed on an electrified and modernized version of the older acoustic orkes melayu orchestra and combined influences from Indian and Malaysian film music, Islamic popular music and American popular song, primarily rock. The name dangdut is an onomatopoeic reference to the tabla-like pair of drums used in the ensemble that supply the genre with its defining rhythm: DANG dut, in which a heavy, low-sounding pitch off the beat ("dang") is followed by a light, higher pitch note on the downbeat ("dut"). The form was originally characterized by love duets between young men and women.

Oma Irama (b. 1946) began his dangdut singing career performing these light tunes, often with the legendary Elvy Sukaesih, who later became known as the Dangdut Queen. However, beginning in 1976 Oma changed his name to Rhoma (father) Irama (rhythm) and launched a solo career in which he crafted a newer and lyrically more sophisticated style of dangdut. In this new form, Irama downplayed the influence of Indian film scores (although he continued to lift and rearrange melodies from Bollywood) while emphasizing the American (primarily hard rock) and Middle Eastern (primarily contemporary cabaret music) influences. Irama's lyrics began to acquire an unmistakable air of social criticism and Islamic moralizing.
The dangdut audience is overwhelmingly poor, urban and Islamic, and the stir created by Irama's subtle (but significant) recognition of the major economic disparities between social classes in Indonesia and the hopelessness of the Indonesian poor attracted the then dictatorial government's notice. For a short time afterward Irama was banned from appearing on state-sponsored television.

During the 1980s dangdut was synonymous with the on-stage persona of Irama, the King of Dangdut, dressed in a tight black tanktop, headband, leather pants, gloves and boots, and playing a black flying-V guitar, sweatily glistening in heavy-metal dangdut glory—certainly a far cry from the bubblegum, coy flirtatiousness of the heavily made-up teen dangdut singers of the genre's early years.

Today dangdut remains popular through its ability to transform and reinvent itself every five years or so, always incorporating far-flung popular influences. However, with Irama in semiretirement, dangdut has reverted mostly to light flirtatious songs, and today it greatly resembles other forms of more overtly Westernized Indonesian genres of popular music. —Andrew McGraw